history-of-nuclear-power

History of nuclear power

History of Nuclear Power: We start in 1896. In Paris, physicist Henry Becquerel accidentally discovered during an experiment that uranium in a photographic plate turns black – or black – without any other light source. They concluded that uranium naturally emits amyloidosis, which they call “uranic” in French. In the years that followed, physicists Pierre and Marie Curie discovered other elements that also emit radiation naturally.

They call this phenomenon radioactivity. Later, Ernest Rutherford, a British physicist born in New Zealand, suggested that the radioactivity edition was accompanied by the disintegration of atoms, which had previously been considered indivisible. Other results are then used to better understand the structure of the atom, with electrons revolving around the nucleus containing protons and neutrons. In 1938, two German chemists, Han and Strauss-Kahn, discovered the atomic part. The bombing of the uranium atom by neutrons, it is divided into two parts, releasing energy.

The following year in Paris, Friedrich Juliet Currie discovered that during the atomic fraction of uranium, three neutrons are emitted, which could lead to further emission of atoms. It detects the ability to start a series of reactions and thus generates a large amount of energy. In Europe, World War II began. Although Germany continues to research uranium, Albert Einstein is convinced by Hungarian physicists that the president of the United States used it to build a very powerful bomb using Russia’s recent nuclear discoveries and the use of uranium. Prepared to sign Roosevelt’s letter informing of the possibility.

With the arrival of European scientists, the United States fled the war and invested in research. At the University of California, Glenn Seiberg found that unseen uranium produces small amounts of plutonium, a new metal that is radioactive and fossil, meaning it can cause chain reactions. In Chicago, Enrico Fermi built the first nuclear stockpile and – for the first time – managed to control the reaction of the first series of uranium atoms. Research accelerates and significant resources are invested. The United States, along with Canada and the United Kingdom, secretly launched the Manhattan Project. Top scientists gather at about 30 secret locations, with the best laboratories available at the moment.

Their goal is to make an atomic bomb. The goal is to make a second bomb from plutonium and uranium. In nature, uranium contains more than 99% of uranium 238, with a nucleus of 92 protons and 146 neutrons, and 0.7% of uranium 235, which is less than three neutrons. Only the latter are fossils, so use insulin in this project. The challenge is to isolate and focus on getting so-called enriched uranium. The United States manages to produce 64 tons of highly enriched uranium for the first bomb. Running a highly enriched uranium block on someone else, the material becomes superfluous. Fusion begins and in the second part, the chain reacts, releasing a lot of energy. Most of the uranium produced for plutonium bombs is made into piles to store the resulting platinum.

Some pounds are concentrated in the center of the bomb. By causing explosions all around at the same time, the material is pressurized, becomes supercritical, and explodes. On July 16, 1945, the first successful nuclear test took place in the desert of New Mexico. By this time, Germany had already surrendered. Only the Empire of Japan is still at war with the United States. After Japan refused to surrender unconditionally, the United States dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima and two atomic bombs on a plutonium-laden country in Nagasaki. The two bombings killed about 200,000 civilians.

A few days later, Japan surrendered. As the United States demonstrates its power to the world, the Soviet Union seeks to accelerate its nuclear program. The USSR conducted its first nuclear test. During the Cold War, both powers were involved in a rapid arms race. Large sums of money are spent on acquiring the world’s largest nuclear weapons with the clear goal of gaining technical superiority and preventing the enemy from attacking.

While Britain tests its first atomic bomb, the United States tests its first thermocouple bomb, also known as the hydrogen or H bomb. It is a fusion bomb, meaning two light atoms, deuterium and tritium, which are under pressure and reproduce the reaction found in stars by penetrating at a temperature of several million degrees Celsius. To achieve these conditions, it was decided to use the atomic bomb as a stimulus.

The explosion of a plutonium bomb creates the right conditions for the fusion of atoms. The ensuing explosion is far more powerful than nuclear fusion. In return, the Soviets developed H-bombs. In parallel, research is being done to promote nuclear power. The first nuclear power plants appeared. The majority of future reactors will be with pressure water. At the core of the reactor is a vessel that holds low-enriched uranium and is used as fuel.

The reaction of the chains is controlled for about 3 years. The heat released increases the temperature of the pressurized water in the main circuit. This circuit is brought into contact with the secondary circuit in which water is heated to convert it into steam. It is used to rotate a turbine that is connected to a power generator. The cooling circuit pumps water from a stream or ocean to cool the vapor in the secondary circuit. Cooling towers are sometimes built in the last circuit to cool the water.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been set up under the auspices of the United Nations to encourage research into nuclear power. The organization is responsible for ensuring the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy. In addition, it will be used in nuclear medicine, especially in medical imaging and in the treatment of certain cancers. While France is testing its first atomic bomb, the arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States is in full swing. Both powers have already developed intercontinental ballistic missiles and nuclear submarines.

The USSR conducted the most powerful test of the Tsar Bomb, with a capacity of 50 to 57 megatons of TNT. Next year, the United States will test a hydrogen bomb at an altitude of 400 km. The explosion produces artificial aerobics, even from New Zealand. The radiation emitted damages at least eight satellites. That same year, when the Soviet Union threatened Soviet territories with nuclear missiles installed in Turkey and Italy, the USSR identified Cuba’s nuclear missiles. As tensions rise, so does the need for dialogue between the two powers, after which both sides withdraw their missiles and the situation calms down.

China tests its first atomic bomb The United States and the Soviet Union take a retrospective view of the arrival of new rivals. Through the United Nations, they propose a treaty on nuclear non-proliferation. This sets the 5 so-called nuclear powers apart from the rest of the world. The existing nuclear powers cannot share knowledge or supply weapons, while the rest of the world cannot try to get an atomic bomb. In addition, nuclear powers must be disarmed as much as possible.

The agreement will gradually be signed by all countries of the world, with the exception of India, Pakistan and Israel, which, on the contrary, refuse to possess nuclear weapons despite suspicions. Latin America has moved on to become the first nuclear-free populated area. Finally, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit the development of strategic weapons. 1973 saw the world’s first oil crisis. In a short time, the price of a barrel of oil explodes, hurting the world powers whose economies rely heavily on black gold.

The world is looking for alternatives to ensure its energy supply. France and Japan rely heavily on nuclear energy. Expansion of a reactor at the Three Mill Island nuclear power plant and leakage of the primary circuit. Because the fuel no longer sinks, it heats up more and then melts in its pot. Fortunately, this resistance prevents and prevents collective leaks.

A few years later, at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, after a series of human errors, technicians lost control of the reactor. When its core temperature reaches freezing, the blast blows off the concrete roof, part of which collapses and shatters the vessel. Extremely radioactive clouds are released into the air. It spreads and pollutes a large part of the European continent. A 2,600-square-kilometer emission zone has been created around the power plant and more than 200,000 people are homeless.

Across the world, accidents fuel popular opposition to nuclear power, which puts a huge strain on industry growth. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the United States and Russia continued to reduce their nuclear weapons. In addition, after more than 2,000 formal nuclear tests around the world, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been introduced. It is not implemented because at present three of the 44 countries with nuclear reactors do not sign it and five others sign but do not ratify it. Two years later, India and Pakistan continued their nuclear tests.

Abdul Qadeer Khan, who is considered the father of the Pakistani atomic bomb, has admitted that a secret network was set up in the beginning of Dubai to provide atomic bomb-making plans and materials to Libya, Iran and North Korea. Is. North Korea has announced that it has conducted its first nuclear test, following its withdrawal from the treaty and non-proliferation. At the same time, Iran has announced that it has tightened uranium enrichment, much to the dismay of the international community.

Israel maintains ambiguity over its nuclear program. Many believe there are dozens of atomic weapons in the country, but the latter does not confirm or deny these reports to deter any potential enemy. One of the benefits of nuclear energy is that it emits a small amount of CO2. However, it produces hundreds of thousands of years of radioactive waste. Although most waste has a lifespan of a few decades, current technologies do not offer a definitive solution to high-quality, long-lasting waste. Most countries rely on deep geological reserves to store nuclear waste more than 300 meters below the surface.

On March 11, 2011, Japan fell victim to a triangle. The epicenter was reported below the epicenter, however; no tsunami alert was issued. The epicenter was reported below the epicenter, however; no tsunami alert was issued. Crash prevents the Reuters Corps from cooling off. Within a few days, four reactors exploded, releasing a highly radioactive cloud that is blown into the Pacific Ocean, reaching the North American continent and then spreading throughout the northern hemisphere.

Then all 39 Japanese nuclear reactors shut down. As a result, Germany has announced a halt to nuclear power. Elsewhere, most nuclear-armed countries review the safety of their plants. While 9 countries still have 16,000 nuclear bombs, at the United Nations, 122 countries have voted in favor of a treaty aimed at the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Only vote against the Netherlands, while Singapore abstains. But the vote has been marked by the absence of many countries, including the nuclear powers and NATO member states.

If the treaty is ratified by 50 countries, it will come into force. Today, 34 countries have already ratified. In terms of nuclear power, 417 operating reactors generate just over 10% of the world’s electricity. 46 reactors are under construction, including 10 chains whose growing energy needs. Elsewhere in the world, the nuclear fleet is getting older.

Two-thirds of the world’s reactors are over 30 years old, with their original plan over 40 years old. Promises to end their future are costly. New generations of nuclear power plants are struggling to meet the world’s growing energy needs, with significant delays and additional costs. Meanwhile, 35 countries are cooperating around the international thermonuclear experimental reactor, which continues in France.

The purpose is to study the feasibility of building a technical fusion power plant in the long run. Its budget has already jumped from 5 to 19 billion euros, but if the plan succeeds, it could offer a new type of power plant with a small amount of raw materials and a small amount of radioactive waste. I will generate electricity.
 

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