Today, we are looking at the English language from a different point of view, from a different angle, and looking at the history of the language and how it has evolved, because the English language has not always been the same. It has been formed in sand for hundreds of years. Now, today, hundreds of millions of people around the world speak English, whether it is their first language or their second language, or just a foreign language in which they speak and learn in school, and soon. Therefore, millions of people speak English and learn English. But hundreds of years ago, the English language that we know today did not really exist.
History of English:
In this way, through various historical events, they gradually came together. So let’s go back in history, and take a look at a timeline. I don’t know if you’ve seen the timeline before, but it’s literally time, going from year to year from left to right, like you’ve got a graph, if you’ve made a graph, and time passes along the timeline. ۔ . So the various developments that have taken place can be seen on this line. So we’re starting here hundreds of years ago, in 55 BC, and we’re coming … well, beyond that. We have 1,066 here, but since I got out of place on the board, it went on for so long, I couldn’t come in all the centuries, but I’ll still tell you about them. Okay fine. But these are very interesting parts of the board.
So, 55 BC, the invasion of Britain, Romania, America, where we are now. So, you have heard of Julius Caesar and all the other Caesars, the Roman Empire with the Roman Empire that spreads in different directions, and Britain is one of the directions in which they spread. They came here, stayed for a while and built. Some good buildings, and they built a wall between Scotland and England, called the Hadrian Wall, because the emperor at the time was called Hadrian. So, however, when they came and stayed for a while, they brought their language with them, Latin.
Okay fine? And Latin, now called a mother tongue, but it has influenced many other languages, especially in southern Europe, so languages like Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, all come from Latin. ۔ So, in this country, in English, we have Latin influence at different times. So the Romans brought their Latin language with them. Okay fine? So that over time influenced people’s way of talking to each other. And the inhabitants of this country began to learn Latin words, and they merged into the language.
Okay, so let’s take a look at some of the words we use today that were inspired or came from Latin words. Okay fine? And we have this pie chart, about which you can find out if you are studying the things IELT Sand writes. A pie chart … So, the whole circle represents 100 represents. So if you consider all the English words at the moment, Latin, Latin words that came partly from the Roman invasion, we have 29% of the English words that came from Latin source, from Latin source, source. Okay fine. So here are just a few words we use every day,really.
Words like “man”, “animal”,dental to tooth, “decimal” to do with fingers because we have 10 fingers, “decimal”, and “digital”, also fingers, “factory” where things are made , “Library” where you read books, “library” meaning book, “library”, the building where the books are kept, “manual” is to do if you do things with your hands it comes ۔ Latin word for “hand”, “manual”. “Lunar” to do with the moon, because the Latin word for moon was “luna”, “luna”. And to do “solar” again with the sun, because that was the Latin word, “solar”. “Soldier” because of doing anything with soldiers because the soldiers of the Latin Roman Empire … was the word used for “soldiers”.
“Meles” I think. And we also get our “miles”, the distances, the miles from it, because that was the distance from which they would march, I think, before they had a rest or something like that. So “military” has to do with soldiers. “Science” has to do with knowledge. “Science”, and “station”, the railway station, the bus station is a place where you stand before you leave, and it also comes from the Latin word that stands firm. Okay fine. Okay, so this is Latin. You will also see that later in history, Latin is coming back, then there and there too, but this is one of the three points of Latin history when we had one or the other kind of visitors. Okay, so let’s move on to the next big event.
I’ve put 450 AD, but I’m going to start adding centuries now, because it’s easy. So, the 5th century, well, the German emigration. These are the same people who are on the German mainland today and have moved across Europe. Okay fine? From the Saxon, Saxon region of Germany. saxony.So, the language they brought with them was kind of … well, it became Anglo-Saxon, because it would merge into English. , Which we already had, the Anglo part, the Saxon part added.
This … and its other name is English, Old English, which looks very different from the English we meet today. So they brought a different language with them, and they got it all. If you think that a big cooking pot and various ingredients are being added, and it just keeps cooking and cooking overtime, then the same thing is developing. Okay fine.
“Home”, “hands”, “bread”, then some parts of the body. “Food”, these kinds of things. Okay, so that’s one. Before that, in the 6th century, before that, we used to call you a pagan country, just like before Christianity. In the sixth century, St. Augustine came and began converting people to Christianity.
Okay fine. And that meant bringing languages with them, like the Bible that was written in these different languages, other books, learning books. So, again, Latin came. And the Greeks came, and the Hebrews came with Christianity, which spread throughout the land. So we have covered the Latin language. Let’s just take a look at Greek in our pie chart to see how much it has affected the language today. So looking at the Greek, it’s actually very small, only 6%. But they are very different … These are the kind of words that are used in a kind of academic life and the word “academic” is one of them.
“Education” is a Greek word. And “Android”, if you have an Android mobile phone, you may not believe it comes from an ancient Greek word, but it is. “Android”. Okay fine? Words like “basic”, “cinema”, even “climate”, “democracy”, “economy”, “geography”, “history”, “idea” because philosophy, thinking, ideas are very important and There is a capital letter. Greece had a great influence on him. “Politics” and “technology” all come from Greek. Well, Hebrew, we don’t have that until it’s included in another effect that’s another 6%. Okay, so we’re moving into an era when we had some more attacks and this time it wasn’t about the Romans, it was the people called the Vikings from the Scandinavian countries, so Norway, Sweden, Denmark.
, And they came across the sea and attacked. And it wasn’t just an attack. It happened during the eight centuries, from the eighth to the eleventh century. So the Vikings invaded, and they brought their Scandinavian languages with them. And Old Norse is one of them. And as I said before, from this German migration, this is another kind of input we have in these types of German language. That’s why we have 26% because there are so many things coming up. Okay fine. Okay fine.
So, let’s move on again … This is also the 11th century, 1066, which is a great history of English history.Norman attack and if you know the area called Normandy in northern France, there is a connection. So, Norman was French, and he attacked … He crossed the Channel, he fought a great battle near the south coast of Britain, and he won so he took power. So, the Norman attack, which first brought French and then some more Latin, because, anyway, French came from Latin, so it was a mixture of that. But for the first time, French, his French, has been developed in Latin as well as in Latin. So, let’s take a look at some of the words we use so: “beef”, “pork” and “veal” all come from French words.
Okay fine? But then some other interesting words that were probably Latin actually, but they became French, and then these French words came into English and they are still with us today, like words: “Continue”, “Freedom”, “Justice”. So many legal languages, words to do with the law come from French. So “freedom”, “justice”. “Travel”, if you go on a trip, comes from a French word for a trip. “People” comes from a French word for people. And even a little bit of the word “a lot”. When you say: “Oh, that’s great”, “very” is just right for the French word, it means “really”, “really good”. It’s really good, it’s very good.
So, a little word like “a lot” comes from the French word “truth”.Okay, so we’ve covered Latin, French, German and Greek. And we’ve come to 1066, but of course. The English language did not develop at that time. Like I said, I ran out of place. But other things happened, for example, in the 15th century, in the 16th century, people started exploring the world, boarding ships and looking for other countries, looking for places like America that they didn’t even know were there. The first was Christ Christopher Columbus. Also, and found in the Portuguese, for example, India and China. So, find people.
And then in the 18th, 19th century, colonialism, the British Empire, Britain joined other countries politically, then finally the British Empire came to an end and instead we now have a commonwealth. And now in the 20th, 21st century, language is still evolving.
We have the internet, the speed of travel. It’s very easy to get on a plane and travel thousands of miles and go to another country, so for example words keep coming back from other countries. So if you look at the British Empire Wards, there are a lot of Asian words, Middle Eastern and Far Eastern words, like “balcony” and “bangle”, a bangle that you wear around your wrist, “bangle”. A “bungalow”, this is a house that is just a story, a bungalow. We have many in this country. A “guru” from India, someone who goes to you for advice and help, a “guru”. A “kiosk”, “pajamas” that you wear to bed at night, “pajamas” are from a kingdom. “Sandals” that you wear on your feet, sandals that are with places for warm weather.
And even “shampoo” with which you wash your hair, “shampoo” is a foreign word in one of the countries of the kingdom. And finally … so, we were talking about the Internet and technology. If you are doing housework and carpet hovering, we also call carpet hollowing because you use a vacuum cleaner, but there is a big brand of vacuum cleaner hover, and the maker’s name was hover. So, but the word has now become a verb of “to hover” and “hovering”.
Okay fine? So, names count for about 4% in English, so hover, and more recently, Google Google we all use Google, and now there’s a verb “from Google”, so I’m doing some Google ۔ So … no, sorry, not like that, it’s hovering. I’m doing some googling. So these are just two examples of the two names that are now part of the English language, and it still changes all the time. So … but it’s an interesting language to study, as I hope you’ll agree. So, I hope this is interesting to you, a little bit of history.