The attacking infantry is constantly advancing, their elephants have broken the defensive line. The king tries to retreat, but the enemy cavalry repulses him from the rear. Escape is impossible. But this is not a real war, nor is it just a game. During the nearly one and a half thousand years of its existence, chess has been considered a tool of military strategy, a metaphor for human affairs, and a standard of intelligence. Although our earliest records of chess date back to the seventh century, the legend suggests that the game originated a century ago. It is believed that when the Gupta prince was killed in battle, his brother devised a way to represent the scene in front of his grieving mother.
A new game has emerged on the 8×8 Ashtpada board, which is used for popular entertainment venues, which includes two main features: different rules for moving different types of pieces, and the same king piece whose fate Decided the outcome. The game was originally known as the Sanskrit word for “four parts”. But after Sassanid spread to Persia, it got its current name and term – “chess”, which is derived from “king,” meaning king, and “king mate”, or “the king is helpless.” After the Islamic conquest of Persia in the seventh century, chess was introduced to the Arab world. Continuing its role as a strategic simulation, it eventually became a rich source of poetic imagery.
Diplomatic staff and courtiers used chess terms to describe political power. The ruling caliph himself became an avid player. And the historian al-Masudi saw the game as a testament to human free will, rather than an opportunity. The game of medieval trade continued along the Silk Road in East and Southeast Asia, where many local forms developed. In China, chess pieces were placed inside the squares of the board instead of at the intersections, as is the case with local strategy games. An 11×10 board called a watchman was seen during the reign of Mongol leader Temer Lane.
And in Japanese shogi, the pieces caught could be used by the opposing player. By 1000 AD, sports had become part of judicial education. Chess was used as an allegory by various social classes to play their proper role, and the pieces were reinterpreted in their new context. At the same time, the church was skeptical of sports. With a brief ban on chess in France, ethicists warned against giving them more time. Nevertheless, the game spread and the 15th century saw it harmonize with the form of harmony.
The relatively weak piece of the counselor was re-created as a more powerful queen – perhaps influenced by the recent rise of strong female leaders. This change accelerated the pace of the game, and as the other rules became more common, common holes and analysts were analyzed. The idea of chess was born. With the Enlightenment, the game moved from the royal courts to the coffee houses. Chess is now seen as an expression of creativity, which encourages bold tricks and dramatic dramas.
This “romantic” style culminated in the 1851 Immortal Game, where Adolf Anderson arranged a checkmate after sacrificing his queen and two thugs. But the emergence of a formal competitive game in the late nineteenth century meant that strategic calculations would eventually become dramatic. And with the rise of international competition, chess has taken on a new geopolitical significance. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union amassed vast resources by cultivating chess talents and dominated the championship for the rest of the century. But the player who would upset the Russian domination really upset was not a citizen of another country but an IBM computer that was Deep Blue.
Computers for playing chess have been around for decades, but Deep Blue’s victory over Gary Casper came in 1997 when a machine defeated a sitting champion. Today, chess software is capable of permanently defeating the best human players. But just as in the game they have mastered, these machines are products of human convenience. And maybe the same ease will come out of this outpost.